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STAR TREK - THE ORIGINAL SERIES
SEASON TWO EPISODE GUIDE

1.  Amok Time

September 15, 1967

"After a time, you may find that having is not so pleasing a thing after all as wanting. It is not logical, but it is often true."

- Mr. Spock

In the throes of his Pon Farr mating period, Spock must return to Vulcan to meet his intended future wife, betrothed from childhood.

Director: Joseph Pevney
Writer: Theodore Sturgeon

Guest starring: Mark Russell, Phil Adams, Mauri Russell, Joseph Paz, Walker Edmiston, Frank da Vinci, Celia Lovsky, Arlene Martel, Byron Morrow, Lawrence Montaigne, Paul Baxley, David Perna, Charles Palmer, Gary Wright, Russ Peek

Season 2 introduced new opening credits. DeForest Kelley's name was added to the "starring" cast and the theme music was extended and had the female soprano voice Loulie Jean Norman and percussion added to it.

The first appearance of the Vulcan phrases "Peace and long life" and "Live long and prosper", and of the Vulcan hand salute. Leonard Nimoy improvised this salute based on a traditional Jewish religious hand gesture. This episode also was the first time the term "Vulcans" was used to describe the inhabitants of the planet Vulcan. In the previous season, they were referred to as "Vulcanians". This was one of Leonard Nimoy's favourite episodes.

Celia Lovsky (T'Pau) was unable to make the Vulcan salute by herself. The filming crew taped her fingers together in the appropriate groups, and placed her hand flat on the armrest of her chair in the configuration. She then simply raised her hand into view, already in the salute.

The second season rarely featured Lt. Sulu (George Takei) and Ensign Chekov (Walter Koenig) in the same episode. Koenig was, in fact, cast as Chekov to fill in for Sulu in the first few episodes of the second season, while Takei was still involved in the filming of The Green Berets (1968). The two characters usually alternated between episodes. The episode "Amok Time" is one of the few second-season examples of their appearances on-screen together. This was the first time (in broadcast order) that Walter Koenig appears as Ensign Pavel Chekov. If you go by production order, his first appearance is Star Trek: Catspaw (1967).

"Amok Time" was the first aired episode in Season 2, but according to DVD Commentary, was actually filmed fifth. Star Trek: Catspaw (1967) was the first to be filmed for the second season but would not air until over a month after "Amok Time" as the seventh episode of the season.

The prequel series Star Trek: Enterprise (2001) considered having its regular Vulcan character (played by Jolene Blalock) be a younger version of T'Pau. Since that would have required paying a fee to the estate of Theodore Sturgeon the author of Amok Time, this plan was abandoned and the new character was rechristened T'Pol. T'Pau did feature as a guest character in a few episodes of Enterprise's fourth season.

T'Pau, first played by Celia Lovsky in the episode Amok Time on Star Trek in 1967 (above left). Kara Zediker protrays T'Pau on Star Trek Enterprise (above center) and finally (above right) T'Pau (as a hologram) on Star Trek Voyager played by Betty Matsushita.

Episode: Amok Time

It's Kirk vs Spock in the fight to the death Vulcan koon-ut-kal-if-fee ritual. During the fight, Spock slashes Kirk with a Lirpa and ruins his shirt.

In the introduction, Spock requests a leave of absence on Vulcan, with a loss of only 2.8 light-days. In this context, he is using light-days as a measurement of time. It is, however, a unit of distance.

After T'Pring chooses Kirk to be her champion, Kirk and McCoy are speaking with T'Pau. If you look in the background, you will see Leonard Nimoy standing against the wall with his hands behind his back, apparently unaware that he is on camera. Spock is supposed to be off in the corner, deep in the blood fever.

2.  Who Mourns for Adonais?

September 22, 1967

"Apollo's no god, but he could've been taken for one, though, once.
Say, 5,000 years ago, a highly sophisticated group of space travelers landed on Earth around the Mediterranean."

- Capatian James T. Kirk

The Enterprise is stopped dead in its tracks by a powerful energy force that appears in the form of a human hand. Soon a being claiming to be Apollo orders Kirk and several others down to the planet below. Apollo claims to have visited Earth 5,000 years ago and Kirk theorizes that he may be telling the truth. Apollo's demand for unquestioned servitude however doesn't give the crew much choice and it becomes imperative that they locate and destroy his power supply.

Director: Marc Daniels / Gilbert A. Ralston
Writer: Gene L. Coon / Gilbert A. Ralston

Guest starring: Leslie Parrish, Michael Forest

This is the very first episode of Star Trek (1966) (in broadcast order) to feature all seven members of the original cast - including Walter Koenig who was the last to join the cast at the very beginning of Season 2.

It was Erich von Däniken who first published theories concerning ancient aliens coming to earth and being taken for gods due to their advanced technology being witnessed by early humanity.

William Shatner was so concerned with the height disparity that he disallowed any shots which would show him and the much taller Michael Forest (Apollo) side-by-side in the same frame. According to Forest, whenever Shatner would speak to him, Forest would notice Shatner inadvertently standing on his tip toes. Jon Voight was the first choice for role of Apollo.

When the Enterprise is being held in the force field "hand", a bridge crewman reports pressure of 1000 gsc. If gsc is grams per square centimeter 1000 is Earth sea level air pressure and not dangerous. Gene Roddenberry's hand is seen stopping and holding the Enterprise. When the Enterprise fires on the temple, the "hand" force field is gone. Spock said that their emitted energy could only negate part of this field, not the whole field. Furthermore, if they could completely negate this field, then they could just beam the landing party up and leave at any time. (The omission of a visible hand was corrected in the 2006 CGI remaster.)

Apollo and others constantly refer to the Trojan War time period as "5000 years ago." Since the Trojan War happened in the 13th century BCE, this would place Star Trek's setting sometime in the 37th century CE. All other references throughout the series indicate a date of no later than the 31st century, before the writers settled on the 23rd.

Lt. Palamas says that in ancient literature, Apollo was the son of the god Zeus and a "mortal" named Leto. All known classical references state that Leto was a Titaness, a member of the elder gods.

When Apollo is mentioning names, he consistently uses Greek mythology. But then he says "Hercules". Hercules was the Roman name. The proper Greek would have been Heracles.

Episode: Who Mourns for Adonais?

Lot's of shirtless and semi-shirtless action in this episode but NO shirtless Shatner.

3.  The Changeling

September 29, 1967

"We are Nomad. We are Nomad. We are complete. We are instructed. Our purpose is clear. Sterilize imperfections. Sterilize imperfections. Nomad! Sterilize! Sterilize! Nomad! Sterilize!"

- Spock: [conducting a mild meld with the Nomad probe]

The Enterprise encounters a powerful energy force that has apparently killed all human life in a solar system with over one billion inhabitants. They identify the culprit as a small space probe that had its origins on Earth. Called Nomad, it merged with another and, as a result, took on a new mission to destroy all biological beings as being imperfect. It believes Captain Kirk to be its creator and, as such, has spared the Enterprise and its crew, at least temporarily.

Director: Marc Daniels
Writer: John Meredyth Lucas

Guest starring: Barbara Gates, Blaisdell Makee, Marc Daniels, Vic Perrin, Arnold Lessing, Meade Martin

Although never credited, this episode - which depicted an Earth-launched space probe that acquires almost unimaginable powers in the course of the search for its "Creator" - became the inspiration behind Star Trek: The Motion Picture (1979). (It also inspired The Questor Tapes (1974), a rejected series pilot written by Gene Roddenberry and Gene L. Coon which also featured a robot with a damaged memory who searched for its creator.) For this reason, some fans have appended to Star Trek: The Motion Picture the punning subtitle "Where Nomad Has Gone Before." The episode also bears a striking resemblance to The Outer Limits: The Probe (1965), aired just two years earlier.

The biographical photo of scientist Jackson Roykirk is of the director Marc Daniels wearing Scotty's dress uniform.

Nichelle Nichols tells a story of getting into a dispute with director Marc Daniels over the filming of this episode. As it had already been established that Uhura's first language was Swahili, Nichols believed that, after her mind was erased, Uhura would revert to her first language. However, as Nichols herself did not speak Swahili, Daniels wanted Uhura to just speak English. Nichols refused to, telling Daniels, "Nichelle Nichols doesn't speak Swahili, but Uhura does!" Gene Roddenberry was eventually brought in to settle the dispute, and he sided with Nichols. A linguist specializing in Swahili was then brought in to write the few lines of Swahili that are spoken in the episode.

In this episode, Lt. Leslie appears at navigation but he is wearing a gold tunic instead of his usual red uniform.

The story implied that Nomad was Earth's first probe out of our solar system. In actual fact, Pioneer 10 was the first craft to reach interstellar space.

A wire suspending the Nomad probe is visible in numerous scenes (namely, at 23:30 when Nomad hovers over to Spock's computer to read up on human anatomy, and at 28:20 in the brig before Spock performs a mind-meld).

In the brig's top security cell where Spock is going to mind-meld with Nomad, the shadow of a boom mic can be seen on the wall, upper left corner of the screen, at the 28:20 mark.

Episode: "The Changeling"
Two Lieutenant Security Officers
- Vaporized by Nomad when trying to prevent the probe from leaving confinement
Lieutenant Carlisle, Security Officer and another
Lieutenant (he didn't even have a name), Security Officer
- Vaporized by Nomad when trying to prevent the probe from taking a wrong turn

4.  Mirror, Mirror

October 6, 1967

"Captain's log, stardate unknown. We are trapped in a savage parallel universe from which we must escape within four hours, or I will face a death sentence at Mr. Spock's hands."

- Captain James T. Kirk

Beamed up during an ion storm, which causes a transporter malfunction, the landing party of Kirk, McCoy, Scotty and Uhura find themselves in a mirror universe aboard a parallel Enterprise run by ruthless barbarians. The ion storm also caused their mirror universe counterparts to beam aboard their Enterprise. Kirk and the others must find a way home before they are discovered and exposed by their mirror universe crew members, who use treachery, back-stabbing and seduction to get what they want.

Director: Marc Daniels
Writer: Jerome Bixby

Guest starring: Johnny Mandell, Nedra Rosemond, Bobby Bass, Paul Prokop, Bobby Clark, Barbara Luna, Garth Pillsbury, Pete Kellett, John Winston, Vic Perrin, Vince Deadrick, David Perna

It took about a month to complete this particular episode. After filming had begun, BarBara Luna was diagnosed with strep throat. Since the script called for Capt. Kirk to kiss her, they had to postpone the kissing scene for three weeks until she was medically cleared, since they couldn't risk William Shatner getting infected.

As mirror Sulu is the security chief as well as the helmsman, George Takei (left) wears a red uniform in this episode - since he normally wore gold, and had worn science blue as an astrophysicist in Star Trek: Where No Man Has Gone Before (1966), this makes Takei the first Trek actor to wear all three uniform colours.

In the wake of this episode, a group of child fans started a neighborhood-wide letter campaign suggesting that the concept of a "Captain's Woman" be carried over into the series as a whole, and requesting that Stefanie Powers be cast in that role. Eventually Gene Roddenberry's assistant had to write to the group's two "ringleaders", telling them to ask their parents exactly what a "Captain's Woman" was.

Star Trek was usually not allowed to show women's navels, but Uhura's navel is visible in the mirror universe (right). Reportedly, this was accomplished by filming while a PA took the Standards representative to lunch.

This is the only episode in which Scotty addresses Kirk as "Jim". Scotty wouldn't call Captain Kirk "Jim" again until Simon Pegg did it in "Star Trek Into Darkness" (2013).

This proved to be one of the more popular Star Trek segments in terms of follow ups. The Mirror Universe would be depicted on Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (1993) and Star Trek: Enterprise (2001), while several non canonical Star Trek novels and comic book series featured sequel stories to the episode. The Star Trek books 'Spectre', 'Dark Victory', and 'Preserver', all written by William Shatner, are about the mirror universe. They take place in the 24th Century at around the same time as the Next Generation movies, and give a 100-year history of events in the mirror universe starting after this episode. The Mirror Universe was also the subject of a Star Trek graphic novel in 1991, written by Mike W. Barr, and published by DC Comics.

Along with Star Trek: The Trouble with Tribbles (1967), this episode provided footage for the Star Trek 30th anniversary "mashup" tribute Star Trek: Deep Space Nine: Trials and Tribble-ations (1996) - specifically the end where "the new lieutenant" brings a report to Kirk, with Ben Sisko (Avery Brooks) having been "forrestgumped" into Marlena Moreau's place (below).

When the landing party is in the middle of the cross-universe transfer, the USS/ISS Enterprise is seen in orbit going in opposite directions (USS Enterprise going counterclockwise [when viewed from above]; ISS Enterprise going clockwise). However, through the rest of this episode, the ISS Enterprise is going counterclockwise.

The mirror universe has the Terran Empire, not the United Federation of Planets. Yet about halfway through the show, the mirror-universe characters begin to refer to Starfleet and the Federation and don't mention the Empire again.

Episode: Mirror, Mirror

No actual shirtless Shatner in this episode but "evil" Kirk does wear a tank top uniform shown off his ample nacelles, if you pardon the engineering parlance.

5.  The Apple

October 13, 1967

"Scotty... you're my chief engineer. You know everything about that ship that there is to know. More than the men who designed it. If you can't get those warp engines working... you're fired."

- Captain James T. Kirk

Kirk and a landing party beam down to what seems to be an ideal, Eden-like planet. They soon find however that the planet is ruled by a powerful computer named Vaal that keeps its local inhabitants - primitive and simple tribesmen - happy and healthy. With the Enterprise locked in a tractor beam and slowly being dragged into the planet's atmosphere, Kirk and Spock must find a way to disable the computer. Realizing the threat to its existence, the computer orders the tribesmen to kill the visitors.

Director: Joseph Pevney / Max Ehrlich
Writer: Gene L. Coon / Max Ehrlich

Guest starring: Vince Deadrick, Bobby Clark, Ron Burke, Paul Baxley, Dick Dial, Shari Nims, David Soul, Celeste Yarnell, Keith Andes, Mal Friedman, Jerry Daniels, Jay D. Jones, Julie Johnson

This episode contains confirmation of a much-speculated upon topic: whether the Enterprise could separate the Engineering section and warp nacelles from the primary vessel.

Mentioned in Kirk and Scotty's conversation by communicator, half-way into the show, after Kirk beams down to the planet with an away team, and Scotty takes a seat in the captain's chair on the bridge. However, no starship was ever shown doing this until Star Trek: The Next Generation: Encounter at Farpoint (1987), and shown only a few times even after that.

The original script called for an emergency saucer separation. However, due to budgeting, the effect was only mentioned but not seen.

Walter Koenig seems to have discarded the wig he used in his earlier episodes. Since his own hair was now long enough, it was not necessary for him to wear it anymore. Also, Chekov's first name, Pavel, is established in this episode, when his love interest, Yeoman Landon, calls him "Pav".

A number of times Spock is shown using the tricorder backwards with the screen facing away from him. This reveals the screen to be blank with no information on it.

Episode: "The Apple"
Crewman Hendorff, Security Officer
- Killed by thorns of a poisonous plant
Lieutenant Kaplan , Security Officer
- Struck by lightning
Lieutenant Mallory , Security Officer
- Killed by explosive rock
Lieutenant Marple , Security Officer
- Hit with a stick by Akuta

6.  The Doomsday Machine

October 20, 1967

"A cranky transporter's a mighty finicky piece of machinery to be gambling your life on, sir."

- James Montgomery Scott (Scotty)

The U.S.S. Constellation and its crew were destroyed by a giant robot ship which consumes planets for fuel, leaving only a guilt-ridden Commodore Decker aboard the crippled ship. Kirk beams over to begin repairs while Decker beams aboard the Enterprise. After Kirk loses radio contact with the Enterprise, the obsessed Commodore seizes command of the starship, determined to destroy the planet-killer, even at the cost of Kirk's ship and the entire crew.

Director: Marc Daniels
Writer: Norman Spinrad

Guest starring: William Windom, Jerry Catron, Tim Burns, John Copage, Richard Compton, Elizabeth Rogers, Vince Deadrick

This episode marks the first time Scotty is heard cursing in Gaelic. He later utters the same expletive in Star Trek: I, Mudd (1967) and Star Trek V: The Final Frontier (1989). One of James Doohan's favorite episodes for its highlighting of the engineering aspects of the Star Trek (1966) world.

This episode marks the debut of the re-designed engineering set. The dilithium crystal storage units now occupy the center of the floor (complete with recycled Horta eggs), a ladder and upper level have been added into what was just a high bank of lighted panels in the first season. The set also is entered through a short spur hallway now, rather than as a side door off a main corridor. The console across from the forced-perspective end of the set has been replaced by a doorway and moved to the main wall to the left of the red grid. The huge structures among which Kirk's evil self and Ben Finney once hid are not seen in detail again, but the emergency manual monitor set was built on stilts on that spot, making its debut in Star Trek: Mirror, Mirror (1967).

This is the first appearance in the series of another vessel identical to the Enterprise. The Constellation is a Constitution class vessel which is virtually the same as the Enterprise. It Registry number is NCC-1017 which implies that it was produced earlier than the Enterprise. Kirk said in an earlier show that there were only 12 Constitution class ships in service.

According to William Windom, he did not enjoy working on the show. He said that William Shatner and Leonard Nimoy were not getting along at the time which made the set's atmosphere tense. He also said that he felt that the episode was silly so he purposely overacted. It was not until many years later that he realized that his character was a reference to Captain Ahab from Herman Melville's "Moby Dick". Windom also said he had Decker compulsively twiddle with cassette cartridges in his hand as an homage to Humphrey Bogart, who did the same thing with ball-bearings as Captain Queeg in The Caine Mutiny (1954). Robert Ryan had been offered the role of Commodore Decker but turned it down.

Director Marc Daniels finished this episode in five days instead of the usual schedule of six. Daniels made a bet with the producers that he could finish the episode in five days. When he succeeded, he got a $500 bonus. The story was taken from an unpublished novel by Norman Spinrad.

Norman Spinrad was disappointed with the appearance of the planet killer. He envisioned the doomsday machine with tentacles and lasers. But the actual Doomsday Machine model was made by dipping a windsock in cement.

In the "Star Trek" novel "Vendetta", author Peter David related that the planet-killer was actually a prototype for a much larger version. The weapon had been built by a race called The Preservers, who were fighting (and losing) a war with the Borg.

As the Enterprise (under Decker's command) is being drawn into the planet killer, the actors on the bridge can be seen reacting to a "whining sound" that was specified in the script, but ultimately not used.

Scotty looses his Scottish accent when he delivers the line "Press this one... 30 seconds later, poof!" His subsequent lines display the correct accent.

After the planet destroyer wipes out the Enterprise's shields, Lieutenant Palmer gives Mister Spock a damage report before the machine attacks again. Elizabeth Rogers, the actress playing Palmer, anticipates the "attack"; she begins to collapse toward her chair a split-second before the Enterprise is "hit."

7.  Catspaw

October 27, 1967

"If we weren't missing two officers and a third one dead, I'd say someone was playing an elaborate trick-or-treat on us."

- Captain James T. Kirk

When Captain Kirk and his landing party arrive on Pyrus VII, they are met by eerie mists, a dark castle, wailing witches, zombies and a black cat. They soon learn that they are under the influence of alien visitors to our galaxy attempt who in an attempt to connect with human consciousness, miss, winding up tapping into the regions of human nightmares instead.

Director: Joseph Pevney
Writer: Robert Bloch

Guest starring: Gary Downey, Antoinette Bower, Theodore Marcuse, Michael Barrier, Rhodie Cogan, Gail Bonney, Mary Esther Denver, Jay D. Jones, Mike Howden, Frank da Vinci, Jim Jones, Vic Toyota, Bobby Bass, Carl Saxe

First appearance of Pavel Chekov, though not the first one broadcast, that was episode was Amok Time (1967). At the time Walter Koenig was still growing his hair out and therefore had to wear a rather unconvincing wig.

A detailed metal prop miniature of the Enterprise was created for this episode, then laminated in lucite as one of Korob's tricks. The miniature was donated to the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum by Gene Roddenberry.

The three witches seen towards the start of the episode were intended to be shown as floating severed heads, hence the reaction from the landing party at their appearance. The characters (right) wore black turtlenecks against a black backdrop, with light shining directly up into the face. Unfortunately, the effect did not work and the turtlenecks worn by the actors can clearly be seen. Even in the remastered version of the episode, this oversight is still present.

The ornithoid lifeforms were marionettes composed of blue fluff, pipe cleaners, crab pincers, and other materials. The marionettes were operated with thick, black threads that were clearly visible; most of this was corrected in the remastered version of the episode. The voices of the little creatures in the final scene are the sounds made by newly-hatched alligators calling for their mother.

8.  I, Mudd

November 3, 1967

"Now listen, Spock, you may be a wonderful science officer but,
believe me, you couldn't sell fake patents to your mother!"

- Harcourt Fenton Mudd

"I fail to understand why I should care to induce my mother
to purchase falsified patents."

- Mr. Spock

When an android takes control of the Enterprise, Kirk and his crew spend four days traveling at warp speed to an uncharted planet. When they beam down they find none other that Harry Mudd, the apparent ruler of the planet made up entirely of androids. It turns out there is one major problem with Harry's idyllic existence: the androids who serve him hand and foot simply won't allow him to leave.

Director: Marc Daniels
Writer: David Gerrold / Stephen Kandel

Guest starring: Roger C. Carmel, Ted LaGarde, Bobby Bass, Maureen Thornton, Vince Deadrick, Starr Wilson, Tamara Wilson, Colleen Thornton, Loren James, Tom LaGarde, Bob Orrison, Richard Tatro, Alyce Andrece, Rhae Andrece, Kay Elliot

Producers had problems searching for identical twins to play androids, casting director Joseph D'Agosta found two young girls (apparently prostitutes) walking on Hollywood Boulevard with their pet wild cat, Marlon. He brought the two girls to meet producer Gene L. Coon and associate producer Robert H. Justman. While they inspected the girls (who were ultimately deemed unsuitable for the role), Coon had to hold Marlon, which consequently scratched him with its claws and tore his entire shirt. Then one night while driving home Gene Roddenberry saw Alyce Andrece and Rhae Andrece walking down a street. Roddenberry literally pulled up beside them, jumped out of his car and told them that they were going to be on television!

A third-season appearance of Harry Mudd was planned but axed due to the producers' desire to move away from comedy episodes. However, Roger C. Carmel would reprise the role of Mudd as a cartoon voice in Star Trek: The Animated Series: Mudd's Passion (1973). Mudd was considered for a return during the Star Trek movies in the 1980s, but Carmel's failing health nixed that. After the success of the "I, Mudd" episode NBC considered making a Harry Mudd spin-off series. They assigned Gene Roddenberry to develop the idea, but being busy with Star Trek and other projects, he didn't have time for it, and the series was never conceived.

Simon Pegg (Scotty in the Star Trek re-boot) has suggested his frequent co-star Nick Frost (Shaun of the Dead (2004), Hot Fuzz (2007), The World's End (2013) and Paul (2011)) as a possible new Harry Mudd. We like that idea!

This marks George Takei's last episode filmed in the series until Star Trek: Return to Tomorrow (1968). Takei was on the East Coast filming The Green Berets (1968) and would be absence for nine episodes. Fans may not have noticed since episodes broadcast were not necessarily in the order filmed.

Chekov says he's been in Leningrad. In 1914 the name of the city was changed from Saint Petersburg to Petrograd, in 1924 to Leningrad, and in 1991, back to Saint Petersburg. The show's writers did not anticipate that the Russian city of St. Petersburg would drop the name Leningrad centuries before Mr. Chekov was born.

9.  Metamorphosis

November 10, 1967

"Our species can only survive if we have obstacles to overcome. You take away all obstacles. Without them to strengthen us, we will weaken and die."

- Captain James T. Kirk

The Enterprise shuttlecraft, carrying Kirk, Spock, Dr. McCoy and critically ill Federation Ambassador Nancy Hedford, encounters a mysterious energy cloud which pulls them down to planet Gamma Canaris N. There they meet a castaway, a young man who purports to be Zefram Cochrane, one of the pioneers of space flight and the inventor of the Warp Drive. Yet history says Cochrane had lived to be 80 years of age before disappearing somewhere in space.

Director: Ralph Senensky
Writer: Gene L. Coon

Guest starring: Elizabeth Rogers, Glenn Corbett, Elinor Donahue

Some shots of Elinor Donahue had to be re-shot after filming had wrapped. The original film negatives were damaged during processing. During the break, Ms. Donahue had gotten pneumonia and lost ten pounds. To hide this, they put Hedford's scarf around her neck and upper body. Her weight loss is still visible on her face, although this does fit in with her illness in the story.

This is the first episode in which Captain Kirk is not on the Enterprise at any time. and the first appearance in the Star Trek franchise of Zefram Cochrane.

CHARACTER BIOGRAPHY:
In the Star Trek universe, Dr. Zephram Cochrane was born in 2032 and is the inventer of the warp drive. During the 2060s, he lived in Bozeman, Montana in North America, where he and his team of engineers began developing the warp drive and finally built Earth's first warp ship, the Phoenix.

On April 4th 2063, he encountered the crew of the Federation starship USS Enterprise-E who came from the future to stop a Borg sphere from preventing first contact. Doctor Cochrane was treated like an historical figure by the crew, as he was to them. On April 5th, the next day, at 11:00 AM, the Phoenix was launched with Commander William T. Riker and Lieutenant Commander Geordi La Forge accompanying him. He broke the warp barrier just after 11:00 AM, enough to draw the attention of a Vulcan ship passing near Earth. The Vulcan ship landed in Montana that evening, thereby making first contact with humans, and opening a new era for the whole of mankind. At the time of First Contact, Zefram Cochrane did not have a grand vision of ushering in a new era for mankind or of endowing Earth with the gift of warp technology. These qualities came to be commonly ascribed to him by later generations, but, as with many of history's icons, the man himself was more complex.

In fact, Cochrane had a cynical streak. He had an alcohol abuse problem, and his primary motivation for developing warp technology was financial gain in the devastated, poverty-stricken America that existed in the wake of the Third World War. When confronted with worshipful Enterprise crew members, Cochrane claimed that he was interested in nothing more than a simple, to make enough money to retire to a beach somewhere filled with naked women. He actually had an intense dislike for air and space travel and preferred taking trains.

In 2119, he officially opened the Warp Five Complex on Earth. During this speech, Cochrane coined many phrases that would be used by Starfleet for generations to come, including "where no man has gone before." Later that year, he left his new home on Alpha Centauri colony for an unknown destination, and was later presumed dead.

In 2267, Captain James T. Kirk, Commander Spock, and Dr. Leonard McCoy of the USS Enterprise were ferrying the terminally-ill Federation commissioner Nancy Hedford aboard the shuttlecraft Galileo when they were mysteriously brought down on an asteroid in the Gamma Canaris region. There, they discovered Cochrane alive and living with a cloud-like entity called the Companion, which had kept him young and alive over the past 150 years. The Companion later entered the body of Hedford, and she and Cochrane began a new life on the asteroid, now with a typical Human life span. Cochrane had Kirk promise never to reveal the events surrounding their encounter

10.  Journey to Babel

November 17, 1967

"Logic! Logic! I'm sick to death of logic!
Do you want to know how I feel about your logic?"

- Amanda

"Emotional, isn't she?"

- Mr. Spock

"She has always been that way."

- Sarek

"Indeed. Why did you marry her?"

- Mr. Spock

"At the time it seemed the logical thing to do."

- Sarek

The Enterprise is transporting several diplomatic delegations to a conference on Babel regarding the future of the mineral-rich planet Coridan. Among the passengers are Spock's parents, Ambassador Sarek and Amanda. There is obviously a chill between father and son owing to Spock's choice of pursuing a career in Starfleet. Unknown to Spock or his mother is the fact that Sarek is seriously ill. There is also much tension among the delegations and a spy on board is transmitting coded messages to a ship that attacks the Enterprise.

Director: Joseph Pevney
Writer: D.C. Fontana

Guest starring: Cindy Lou, Billy Curtis, Jane Wyatt, William O'Connell, John Wheeler, James X. Mitchell, Reggie Nalder, Jim Shepherd

In the first episode ever to feature Spock's parents, actors Mark Lenard and Jane Wyatt asked Leonard Nimoy for advice on how the two of them could display their affection for one another in a subtle way since the Vulcans are without emotion and since it was Nimoy who had created the Vulcan Neck Pinch and the Vulcan Salute. Nimoy suggested that they touch and stroke each others hands by the index and middle finger. Wyatt was not familiar with the series and had assumed that it was a comedy after reading the script. But on her first day of work, she saw that the cast and crew took the show very seriously. Wyatt would only play Spock's mother one more time, in the film Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home (1986). On Star Trek: The Animated Series (1973), to save costs, Majel Barrett voiced the role. Mark Lenard, however, reprised his role of Sarek in the animated series and again in Star Trek III: The Search for Spock (1984), Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home, Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country (1991), Star Trek: The Next Generation: Sarek (1990), and Star Trek: The Next Generation: Unification I (1991).

Though they play father and son, Mark Lenard was 42 years old at the time and Leonard Nimoy was 36. For two weeks after the airing of this episode, Mark Lenard received more fan mail than Leonard Nimoy.

Thelev is the first male Orion seen in Star Trek. However, since he was disguised as an Andorian for his entire screen time, we don't see what he "really" looks like.

Kirk is attacked and clearly stabbed in the lower back. McCoy later reports that the knife narrowly missed Kirk's heart and Kirk is bandaged across the upper chest, nowhere near where the knife wound occurred. During the fight, the knife gets knocked out of Thelev's hand and it falls on the ground to his left. There is a quick change in camera angle and Thelev is now holding the knife in his right hand. Also, just before Kirk knocks Thelev to the floor, the back of his vest has been flipped up. In the next shot, it is flat on his back. Also, there is no blood on Thelev's knife after he has wounded Kirk.

Episode: Journey to Babel

Kirk's gets to take his shirt off twice in this episode. The first time we see Kirk in his quarters changing from his dress unform into his regular green Captain's shirt. The second time is in sick bay after a knife attack, with a bandage around his chest.

11.  Friday's Child

December 1, 1967

"Oochy-woochy kootchie-koo, Captain?"

- Mr. Spock

Kirk, Spock, and McCoy land on a primitive planet to negotiate a mining treaty, but soon find themselves involved with intrigue and must flee with a pregnant woman into the surrounding mountains.

Director: Joseph Pevney
Writer: D.C. Fontana

Guest starring: Dick Dial, Julie Newmar, Tige Andrews, Michael Dante, Cal Bolder, Ben Gage, Kirk Raymone, Bob Bralver, Jim Jones, Chuck Clow

This is the only episode in which Uhura and Sulu call Scotty by his nickname. Otherwise, they call him "Mr. Scott". When Scotty is in command of the ship, they receiving a distress call from a Federation freighter, the S.S. Deirdre. Deirdre is the name of James Doohan's second daughter.

This episode marks the debut of Sulu's personal scanner at his helm position. In its first appearance, the device dramatically unfolds and emerges from inside the helm console.

For his first four appearances in the series, including this episode, Walter Koenig (right) wore a The Monkees (1966) style wig, which he absolutely detested. This is also the first episode which Chekov makes the dubious claim of something being invented in Russia. In this case he claims that the old Earth saying: "Fool me once, shame on you. Fool me twice, shame on me," was invented in Russia.

In D.C. Fontana's original script, Eleen sacrificed her child for her own life. But Gene Roddenberry objected to this and changed the ending. Eleen was originally written to be as a stronger character who rebels against the male-dominated Capellan society but this was also changed. Eleen's baby, Leonard James Akaar, would make numerous appearances decades later as a high-ranking Starfleet officer in many Star Trek (1966) novels from the Original Series, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (1993) relaunch novels, and the Star Trek Titan series, where in the latter he holds the rank of Admiral.

When Mr. Scott calls for battle stations as the Enterprise approaches the Klingon ship, Mr. Sulu's personal scanner dramatically emerges out of his helm console. Yet in the very next scene, the scanner is gone, and there seems to be no space from which it could emerge again (Sulu's entire console is covered by controls, which it wasn't before).

A rarely-used shot of the Enterprise from its right-front side. If you look closely, you can see the ship's registry is backwards, which would indicate a flipped shot.

Episode: "Friday's Child"
Lieutenant Grant, Security Officer
- Killed by Capellans on Capella IV with a kligat after reaching for his phaser at the sight of a Klingon.

12.  The Deadly Years

December 8, 1967

"Based on what Dr. McCoy gave me, I estimate that physically we each have less than a week to live. Also, since our mental faculties are aging faster than our bodies, we'll be little better than mental vegetables in a considerably lesser time."

- Mr. Spock

A landing party, including the command staff, are infected with a disease that causes rapid aging and senility.

Director: Joseph Pevney
Writer: David P. Harmon

Guest starring: Charles Drake, Sarah Marshall, Felix Locher, Carolyn Nelson, Laura Wood, Beverly Washburn

William Shatner resisted looking too old as Captain Kirk aged. This is why at first the aging Kirk's hairline is receding but later his hair is fuller. The cast wore oversized versions of their costumes as their characters aged in order to give the impression that they were shrinking.

No special effects shots were filmed for this episode. The entire Romulan attack is created by using stock footage from Star Trek: Balance of Terror (1966) and Star Trek: Errand of Mercy (1967). In addition, no actual Romulans appeared in this episode. They would not be seen again until Star Trek: The Enterprise Incident (1968).

Episode: The Deadly Years

A shirtless Shatner shows Kirk's youth and vitality before the rapid aging process strikes him down.

After Johnson dies Dr. McCoy says, "Last one, Robert Johnson. Cause of death: old age." Medically speaking, old age is not considered an underlying cause of death; it's not even considered a disease. The morbid condition that resulted in or caused death is this case would most likely be cardiovascular disease.

In the final shot, Chekov is suddenly wearing a wig instead of his natural hair. (The shot was obviously borrowed from an earlier episode.)

13.  Obsession

December 15, 1967

"Gentlemen, may I suggest we no longer belabor the question of whether or not we should have gone after the creature. The matter has been rendered academic. The creature is now after us."

- Mr. Spock

Captain Kirk is haunted by a creature from his past he first encountered as a lieutenant aboard the U.S.S. Farragut and blames himself for freezing in a moment of crisis, causing the death of many crewmen. The creature is a cloud-like, gaseous being that lives on the red blood cells found in humans. When the Enterprise encounters the creature Kirk is obsessed by his desire for revenge and to erase the memory of 11 years ago, he pursues the entity relentlessly, putting in jeopardy an assignment to collect essential medical supplies.

Director: Ralph Senensky
Writer: Art Wallace

Guest starring: Stephen Brooks, Jerry Ayres, William Blackburn

Filming took place during the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur. Director Ralph Senensky was an observant Jew and left the set at sundown. Producer John Meredyth Lucas took his place. Lucas went on to officially direct three episodes of this series.

Although Lt. Leslie is killed by cloud creature, he is seen later in the episode walking in the background. According to Eddie Paskey, a scene was written in which Leslie and the others killed by creature are revived by Dr. McCoy but it was not filmed.

The Cloud Creature is depicted entering the Enterprise through a jammed impulse engine vent, opened to the vacuum of space. As it is also depicted as unable to get through solid material, the only way it could have reached the interior would have been to open the duct or manifold corresponding to the jammed impulse engine vent to the ship's interior. This act would have depressurized the Enterprise, killing all aboard.

Ensign Garrovick states that less than one ounce of antimatter is more powerful than 10,000 cobalt bombs but the actual energy yield is only about 1.2 megatons TNT. The implication that a cobalt bomb releases more energy than a "regular" nuclear weapon is incorrect; a cobalt bomb is just an ordinary thermonuclear weapon "salted" with cobalt to produce long-lived Co-60 in its fallout.

Episode: "Obsession"
Crewman Unknown, Security Officer
Lieutenant Leslie , Security Officer
Ensign Rizzo, Security Officer
Crewman (he didn't even have a name), Security Officer
- Killed by dikironium cloud through extraction of erythrocytes. Some of the actors playing security officers returned from the dead. Casting figured the audience would never remember what actor played who. No one foresaw DVD's and repeated episode viewing. Leslie was a popular Enterprise crewmember and occupies many different positions such as navigator, science officer, medical officer and, security officer. After his death in "Obsession" he can be seen prominently and frequently, and his name is called out a number of times.

14.  Wolf in The Fold

December 22, 1967

"Captain, you mean my neck is gonna have to depend on some spooky mumbo-jumbo?"

- Montgomery "Scotty" Scott

While on shore leave on the planet Argelius II with Dr. McCoy and Captain Kirk, Chief Engineer Scott finds himself accused of murdering an exotic dancer he met in a nightclub. He has no recollection of the incident but is found standing over the girl with a bloody knife in his hand.

Director: Joseph Pevney
Writer: Robert Bloch

Guest starring: John Fiedler, Charles Macauley, Pilar Seurat, Charles Dierkop, Joseph Bernard, Tania Lemani, Virginia Aldridge, Judith McConnell, Judi Sherven, Suzanne Lodge, Marlys Burdette, John Winston, Paul Baxley

A large number of costumes are reused from previous episodes in the Argelius bar scene. Some of the extras in the bar are wearing turtleneck uniforms from Star Trek: The Cage (1986) and Star Trek: Where No Man Has Gone Before (1966). Two extras in the bar (one of them is later seen on the foggy street), are wearing the silver cadet uniforms made for the Finnegan character from Star Trek: Shore Leave (1966). Also, one bar patron (played by regular background performer Joe Paz) is wearing Commissioner Ferris' costume from Star Trek: The Galileo Seven (1967), and another is wearing a colonist jumpsuit recycled from Star Trek: The Devil in the Dark (1967).

Tanya Lemani (right) did her own belly dance choreography for the scene, but due to censorship concerns, had to cover her navel with a jewelled flower.

For most of Star Trek, James Doohan ("Scotty") hides his right hand, which was missing the middle finger due to a WWII D-Day injury. While being questioned with his hand resting on some sort of lie detector scanner, his fingers are hidden by being curled around the edge of the plate. During a close-up shot of the machine reacting to an intentional lie being told, a complete five-fingered hand spread across the plate is seen - the hand is an obvious stunt double.

This is one of the very few episodes of the second season to feature music composed by Alexander Courage (mainly because of the feud between Courage and Gene Roddenberry, and his resulting withdrawal from the series).

We know he's innocent but come on! Scotty is the only suspect in the murder of Kara the belly dancer but is allowed to wander off to a secluded chamber supervised only by an unprotected female.

15.  The Trouble With Tribbles

December 29, 1967

"Aye, sir. Before they went into warp, I transported the whole kit 'n' caboodle into their engine room, where they'll be no tribble at all."

- Montgomery "Scotty" Scott

To protect a space station with a vital grain shipment, Kirk must deal with Federation bureaucrats, a Klingon battle cruiser and a peddler who sells furry, purring, hungry little creatures as pets.

Director: Joseph Pevney
Writer: David Gerrold

Guest starring: Bob Orrison, Jerry Summers, Dick Crockett, Richard Antoni, Phil Adams, Bob Myles, William Schallert, William Campbell, Stanley Adams, Whit Bissell, Michael Pataki, Edwin Reimers, Charlie Brill, Paul Baxley, David L. Ross

Tribbles have made subsequent appearances in numerous different versions of Star Trek, including important plot focuses in Star Trek: The Animated Series: More Tribbles, More Troubles (1973 - and was originally pitched by writer David Gerrold as a third season episode. Producer Fred Freiberger rejected it because he did not like the comedic tone) and Star Trek: Deep Space Nine: Trials and Tribble-ations (1996). Tribbles also made cameo appearances in Star Trek III: The Search for Spock (1984), Star Trek Into Darkness (2013) and even Star Trek: Enterprise.

The scene in which Kirk is buried in an avalanche of tribbles took eight takes to get right. The tribbles were thrown into the hatch by members of the production crew. The crew members were not sure when to stop because they were unable to see the scene. This is why additional tribbles keep falling on Kirk one by one. William Shatner can be seen looking perplexed as to why more tribbles keep falling on him. Shatner recalled the great enjoyment all the cast had filming this episode. He noted, "The trouble we had with 'Tribbles' was [to] keep your straight face. It was just a lot of fun." The episode was nominated for a Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation.

According to David Gerrold's The World of Star Trek, Tribbles would be around the set for some time afterward, allowing for occurrences such as what was mentioned earlier or popping up in various other places as well for some months after the production of the episode.

The line in which Spock says that Kirk heard what Baris said, but could not believe his ears, was lifted directly from a Mad Magazine spoof of Star Trek (titled Star Blecch) that had just been published.

The noises that the tribbles make were a combination of dove coos, screech owl cries and air escaping from balloons.

During the famous "bar fight", careful observers will note that while tables are broken, all the chairs remain intact. The tables were studio property: the chairs were rented, and if damaged would have to be paid for. James Doohan insisted on doing his own stunts during the scene.

George Takei does not appear in this episode. For much of the second season, he was filming The Green Berets (1968). Many scenes written for Sulu were switched over to Chekov.

This episode is based upon the short story, "Pigs Is Pigs" by Ellis Parker Butler and greatly resembles one subplot in The Rolling Stones, a 1952 novel by Robert A. Heinlein. Gene Roddenberry and Heinlein made an undisclosed copyright agreement before The Trouble With Tribbles aired. Heinlein conceded to writer David Gerrold that both he and Gerrold possibly "owed something to Ellis Parker Butler".

Untitled

16.  The Gamesters of Triskelion

January 5, 1968

"Captain's log, supplemental. Stardate, unknown. Our strange captivity continues. This planet is called Triskelion. We do not know its location. We do not know who controls it. Its dangers are abundantly clear."

- Captain James T. Kirk

Kirk, Uhura and Chekov are trapped on a planet where abducted aliens are enslaved and trained to perform as gladiators for the amusement of bored, faceless aliens.

Director: Gene Nelson
Writer: Margaret Armen

Guest starring: Bart La Rue, Walker Edmiston, Joseph Ruskin, Angelique Pettyjohn, Steve Sandor, Jane Ross, Victoria George, Dick Crockett, Mickey Morton, Robert Johnson

The look of the character Galt was modeled after Ming the Merciless, the archenemy from the Flash Gordon comic strip.

The backdrop for the Gamesters' underground lair is a reused matte painting previously appearing in Star Trek: The Devil in the Dark (1967). The knives are reused from Star Trek: Mirror, Mirror (1967).

At one point, Spock and McCoy briefly discuss how long one could possibly survive trapped in a transporter beam. The Star Trek The Next Generation episode Relics would reveal how Scotty survived for approximately 75 years after being held in a transporter beam.

The voice of the third Provider is of Bob Johnson who also provided the voice on those mission tapes from Mission: Impossible (1966).

Episode: The Gamesters of Triskelion

Kirk, Uhura and Chekov are kidnapped by three alien brains, who let slaves fight against each other for their amusement and Shatner's shirt doesn't survive the battle.

17.  A Piece of the Action

January 12, 1968

"Logic and practical information do not seem to apply here."

- Mr. Spock

The Enterprise investigates a planet visited 100 years ago by the U.S.S. Horizon. Kirk, Spock, and McCoy beam down and discover that the planet is suffering from cultural contamination from the earlier expedition and all the inhabitants mimic the culture of 1930's gangland Chicago.

Director: James Komack / David P. Harmon
Writer: Gene L. Coon / David P. Harmon

Guest starring: William Blackburn, Jay D. Jones, Marlys Burdette, Anthony Caruso, Vic Tayback, Lee Delano, John Harmon, Sheldon Collins, Dyanne Thorne, Sharyn Hillyer, Buddy Garion, Steve Marlo

Kirk makes up the rules of the card game "fizz bin" as he goes along. William Shatner ad libbed the rules, so his pauses to think and the other actors' confusion are all genuine. In Diane Duane's novel "The Empty Chair", McCoy invents a new version, Tournament Fizzbin, with the help of Kirk, Sulu, Scotty, and a great deal of Romulan ale.

This is the only time in the original series in which the Enterprise ship phasers are used to stun, and not to kill or destroy or damage. It is also the only time the Enterprise ship phasers are used for a wide proximity shot, such as in this case when they are set to blanket a one city block area around a central point in order to stun a dispersed group of people.

When Kirk and Spock "borrow" an old-fashioned Earth-style car, 1931 Cadillac V-12 Model 370-A Roadster, it is one of a few times in the oroginal series that any character is depicted using ground transportation. Another was when "Assignment: Earth" Robert Lansing as "Gary Seven" hitched a ride in the trunk of a 1966 Dodge Coronet.

Marvel Comics published a sequel story to this episode as part of their Star Trek: Unlimited series. The story, "A Piece of the Reaction" featured the crew of the U.S.S. Enterprise-E (from Star Trek: First Contact (1996)) returning to the planet to discover that its society had in fact gone on to model itself after 23rd Century Starfleet, thanks to the communicator McCoy left behind. The planet is now led by the tough kid Kirk and Spock met in the street, who wishes to hijack the Enterprise-E and finally gain command of a starship, just like his idol, James T. Kirk.

The balls on the billiard table change frequently, between shots, and also remain exactly the same when the camera is looking at Kirk, despite Oxmyx having made several shots.

When they arrive on the planet, Kirk, Spock, and Bones notice a woman walk by wearing a gray miniskirt. Later, when they are confronted by Oxmyx's men, the same woman is seen walking behind them. In the very next shot, she is seen walking across the street.

18.  The Immunity Syndrome

January 19, 1968

"Captain's personal log - stardate 4309.2. We have established that the thing which destroyed the U.S.S. Intrepid and the Gamma 7A system is an incredibly huge but simple cellular being whose energies are totally destructive to all known life. Both Mr. Spock and Dr. McCoy have volunteered to go in a specially equipped shuttlecraft to penetrate the cell, find a way to destroy it and free the ship. Dr. McCoy has the medical and biological knowledge. Mr. Spock is better suited physically and emotionally to stand the stress. Both are right, both are capable... and which of my friends do I condemn to death?"

- Captain James T. Kirk

The Enterprise is sent to investigate the disruption of the Gamma VII-A solar system and the destruction of the U.S.S. Intrepid, staffed solely by Vulcans. When they arrive they find a large dark mass floating in space that is draining energy from everything around it, including the Enterprise. They must destroy the enormous space amoeba before it reproduces and threatens known space.

Director: Joseph Pevney
Writer: Robert Sabaroff

Guest starring: Robert Johnson, Jay D. Jones, Dick Dial

When McCoy and Spock leave the bridge after Spock's near-collapse in the opening scene, Kyle, at the helm, is wearing a red shirt. McCoy gives Spock an examination, but does not confine him to Sickbay, so we can surmise that Spock is only off the bridge for a couple of hours at the most. When he returns, Kyle is wearing a gold shirt.

The shuttle used is the Galileo. The Galileo was destroyed at the end of, "The Galileo Seven", from season one.

In the epilogue, McCoy chastises Spock for "botching the acetylcholine test" during his shuttle pod trip through the organism. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter, so it isn't something one would expect to find inside single-celled organisms.

19.  A Private Little War

February 2, 1968

"Then we arm our side with exactly that much more. A balance of power - the trickiest, most difficult, dirtiest game of them all, but the only one that preserves both sides!"

- Captain James T. Kirk

Kirk returns to the planet where he spent time 13 years before. A friend from his previous visit is now leader of his people. While trying to uphold the Federation's prime directive, Kirk becomes involved in an arms race when the Klingons start equipping a rival native group with superior weaponry.

Director: Marc Daniels / Don Ingalls
Writer: Gene Roddenberry / Gene L. Coon

Guest starring: Roy Sickner, Bob Lyon, Bob Orrison, Gary Carpenter, Paul Baxley, Janos Prohaska, Arthur Bernard, Booker Bradshaw, Ned Romero, Michael Witney, Nancy Kovack, Regina Parton, David Perna

The Star Trek Universe has been known to tackle societal, political, environmental, and other types of issues throughout the history of the franchise. This one tackled the Vietnam War head-on, not only specifically pointing out the "20th-Century brush wars on the Asian continent", but also as portraying the Federation and the Klingon Empire as superpowers using an otherwise peaceful world as pawns in their struggle for power (a direct allegory of the Cold War at that time, between NATO and the Red Bloc).

Episode: A Private Little War

Kirk and McCoy go native when they visit Tyree's planet wearing loose fitting anumal skins. Later, Kirk's chest is fully exposed after Nona nurses him back to health after being attacked by a Mugato.

The Mugato was called The Gumato in the original script. But DeForest Kelley kept mispronouncing it so it was changed. The closing credits still name the creature as The Gumato.

Scotty says that a flintlock would be the first firearm a society would develop. Actually, the matchlock and firefock predate the flintlock.

20.  Return to Tomorrow

February 9, 1968

"Medical log, Stardate 4770.3. Do I list one death or two? When Kirk's body died, Sargon was too far distant from his receptacle to transfer back. Sargon is dead. But is Captain Kirk dead? His body is, but his consciousness is still in the receptacle into which it was transferred earlier."

- Dr. Leonard "Bones" McCoy

The Enterprise discovers three discorporeal intelligences who seek their help in gaining physical bodies... but one of them has plans of his own.

Director: Ralph Senensky / John T. Dugan
Writer: Gene Roddenberry

Guest starring: Diana Muldaur, Cindy Lou, James Doohan, Roger Holloway

First Star Trek appearance of Diana Muldaur (below). She would also appear as Miranda Jones in the episode Star Trek: Is There in Truth No Beauty? (1968), and as Dr. Kathryn Pulaski in 20 episodes of Star Trek: The Next Generation (1987).

In Kirk's speech on risk, he states "Do you wish that the first Apollo mission hadn't reached the moon?" At the time of the original airing, only one year after the launch pad fire that killed the Apollo 1 crew, reaching the moon was far from certain and the risks were enormous.

The voice of Sargon was played by James Doohan. Sargon of Akkad was a Mesopotamian king, who by most accounts, began ruling around 2269 B.C. In the show the year is around 2268 A.D.

Dr. Ann Mulhall wears a red tunic, but she is described as a astrobiologist, which should put her in the Sciences division and have her wearing a blue tunic.

Kirk and his crew disbelieve that fully functioning android bodies can exist, apparently forgetting their encounters with such beings in Star Trek: What Are Little Girls Made Of? and Star Trek: I, Mudd.

21.  Patterns of Force

February 16, 1968

"Even historians... fail to learn from history. They repeat the same mistakes."

- Professor John Gill

The Enterprise searches the reportedly primitive and warlike planet Ekos for the missing Federation cultural observer Professor John Gill. When Kirk and Spock beam down, they discover Professor Gil has contaminated the culture, rendering it into a near-duplicate of Nazi Germany, with himself as their Fuhrer.

Director: Vincent McEveety
Writer: John Meredyth Lucas

Guest starring: Ralph Maurer, Gilbert Green, Chuck Courtney, William Blackburn, William Wintersole, Patrick Horgan, David Brian, Skip Homeier, Valora Noland, Richard Evans, Ed McCready, Bart La Rue, Paul Baxley, Peter Canon

Due to the post-war German ban on Nazi-related imagery and paraphernalia, this was the only Star Trek episode that was not shown on German TV until mid-1990's, when these restrictions were gradually relaxed to allow for artistic expression.

This episode was filmed on the 25th anniversary of the Holocaust. William Shatner and Leonard Nimoy, both being of Jewish backgrounds, felt compelled that Kirk (disguised as an S.S. Obersturmführer) and Spock (disguised as a member of the Gestapo) should defeat the Nazi Reich on planets Ekos and Zeon.

The "leader principle" Kirk mentions at the end of the episode was a foundation of the leadership in Nazi Germany. Known in German as "Führerprinzip", it essentially can be described as a state of law in which there are no laws above those of the Führer, and that the government must obey and enforce such laws. So it's kind of like, "If the President does it, it's not a crime?"

Skip Homeier, who plays Melakon, would later play the insane hippie leader Dr. Sevrin (right) in the third season episode Star Trek: The Way to Eden (1969).

Another of several "parallel Earth" plots in the series, contrived to save money by avoiding the necessity for "alien" sets, costumes and makeup.

Episode: Patterns of Force

After an attempt to pass as space Nazis, Kirk and Spock are captured and apparently tortured. This is the only time on Star Trek that Leonard Nimoy is seen without a shirt.

Spock refers to Nazi Germany as a "tiny country" which rose to dominate Europe. In fact, Germany was already the largest country in Western Europe in 1933 when the Nazis took over.

Kirk and Spock's tools, including the Universal Translators, are confiscated upon their capture, yet they continue to talk with Ekosians and Zeons with no trouble.

While in the jail cell and attempting to remove the transponders from their arms with bed spring, the handcuffs that Kirk is wearing are clearly unlocked and open.

It is never explained why John Gill had to introduce actual Nazi symbols (the swastika, specific uniforms, the word Fuehrer) in order to have the society emulate certain Nazi principles. Also, although it makes sense that someone like Gill could introduce certain technological advances that would take root and blossom very quickly, it makes no sense that the planet looks exactly like 1930s or 1940s Germany. Why would Gill waste his time introducing old specs for things such as Tommy guns and automobiles?

22.  By Any Other Name

February 23, 1968

"Well, sorry, this galaxy is already occupied."

- Captain James T. Kirk

The Enterprise's command crew must thwart an invasion by aliens from another galaxy who plan to conquer this one.

Director: Marc Daniels / Jerome Bixby
Writer: D.C. Fontana / Jerome Bixby

Guest starring: Warren Stevens, Barbara Bouchet, Stewart Moss, Robert Fortier, Lezlie Dalton, Carl Byrd, Julie Cobb

Second appearance of the Galactic Barrier at the edge of the galaxy. The first was Star Trek: Where No Man Has Gone Before (1966).

A three-dimensional chess set is often seen in the series, but a three-dimensional checkers set can be seen in the rec room in this episode. It is later destroyed in a fight (below).

While drinking with Tomar, Scotty finds a bottle of unidentifiable alcohol, and when Tomar asks, "what is it?" Scotty hesitates for a moment and finally says "it's green." In the ST:TNG episode "Relics," where James Doohan reprises his role as Scotty, Data finds a bottle of unidentifiable alcohol in Guinan's bar; when Scotty asks "what is it?" Data sniffs the bottle, hesitates, and finally says, "it is green."

Yeoman Leslie Thompson has the dubious distinction of being the only female "redshirt" to die in Star Trek: The Original Series.

Guest star Barbara Bouchet (born Barbara Gutscher, August 15th 1943) was born in Reichenberg, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, a part of Czechoslovakia that was ceded to Nazi Germany and is today part of the Czech Republic. After World War II, her family was placed in a resettlement camp in the American occupation zone in Germany. They were granted permission to emigrate to the United States under the humanitarian provisions of the Displaced Persons Act of 1948.

After arriving in the United States, the family lived in Five Points, California on the west side of the Central Valley and eventually settled in San Francisco, where Gutscher was raised. During the early 1960s San Francisco Bay Area television station KPIX-TV ran a show named The KPIX Dance Party and offered Gutscher the opportunity to become a member of the show's dance group. These were teenage dancers who danced live to the hit songs of the day and became locally known in their own right by being on television six days per week. She was on the show from 1959 until 1962, then moved to Hollywood to get into the film industry, changing her Germanic sounding surname to the French sounding Barbara Bouchet.

Bouchet began her career modelling for magazine covers and appearing in television commercials, before eventually becoming an actress. Her first acting role was a minor part in What a Way to Go! (1964), which led to a series of other roles in the 1960s. She appeared in the films John Goldfarb, Please Come Home (1964), In Harm's Way (1964), and Agent for H.A.R.M. (1966).

She has acted in more than 80 films and television episodes including Star Trek (1968), The Man from U.N.C.L.E. (1966 above left), Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea (1965 above right), Sweet Charity (1969) and Casino Royale (1967 above center) where she played the role of Miss Moneypenny.

Bouchet appeared, semi-nude, in two editions of Playboy magazine: May 1965 (stills from In Harm's Way) and February 1967 ("The Girls of Casino Royale"). Tired of being typecast and unable to get starring roles in Hollywood, Bouchet moved to Italy in 1970 and began acting in Italian films. In 1983 she starred with Gregory Peck in TV movie The Scarlet and The Black and in 1985, she established her own production company and started to produce a successful series of fitness books and videos. Bouchet speaks English, German and Italian with equal fluency and continues to act in both films and TV shows mostly in Europe and appeared as Mrs. Schermerhorn in Martin Scorsese's Gangs of New York (2002).

Once the Kelvans have accepted their human forms, Kirk welcomes them all as new citizens of the Federation and urges them to start an official colony on the planet where they had crashed. No mention is made of holding Rojan responsible for the murder of Yeoman Leslie Thompson.

Episode: "By Any Other Name"
Crewman Leslie Thompson, Yeoman
- Turned into a mineral cube by Rojan and crushed. She is the only female redshirt to be killed.

23.  The Omega Glory

March 1, 1968

"I don't think we've a right or the wisdom to interfere, however a planet is evolving."

- Captain James T. Kirk

Responding to a distress signal, Kirk finds Captain Tracey of the U.S.S. Exeter violating the prime directive and interfering with a war between the Yangs and the Kohms to find the secret of their longevity.

Director: Vincent McEveety
Writer: Gene Roddenberry

Guest starring: Morgan Woodward, Roy Jenson, Irene Kelly, Morgan Farley, Lloyd Kino, Ed McCready, Frank Atienza

This was one of three scripts submitted to NBC (along with Star Trek: Where No Man Has Gone Before (1966) and Star Trek: Mudd's Women (1966)) when they were seeking to do a second pilot for the series. They ultimately chose to kickstart the series with "Where No Man Has Gone Before".

Scenes from The Omega Glory were featured in a set of View Master (3-D) slides. For some reason in the View Master adaptation the Yangs were renamed the Meraks.

Roy Jenson plays Cloud William, the chief of the tribe of "Yangs" (Yanks) on a parallel planet who have survived, evolved and waged a guerrilla war against the invading "Kohms" (Communists) by taking to the mountains and plains and adapting to the tribal lifestyle of the American Indian. In Red Dawn (1984), Jenson plays the father of Robert Morris, one of the main characters, a band of American teenagers who escape to the mountains during a Communist invasion of the United States and survive to wage a guerrilla war largely by adapting to the tribal lifestyle of the American Indian.

When Dr. McCoy analyzes the crystals on the U.S.S. Exeter, he identifies them as the crew members bodies after water is removed. He says the human body is 96% water and does a tricorder analysis of the remaining 4% and reports it as 35% potassium and 18% carbon. His percentages are either wrong mathematically or physiologically. The 96% figure refers not exclusively to water but organic elements, which includes body fat and sugars in addition to water. While carbon does account for 18% of the total body mass, after removing water the percentage should have been 74%. The content of the minerals is also incorrect. Calcium accounts for 38% and potassium accounts for 10%, not the stated 35%.

Tracey asks "How long would a man live if all disease were erased?" The problem is the immune system would breakdown without something to fight, just as muscles atrophy due to lack of use.

Early on, when Kirk is calling from the Exeter's engineering section to the rest of the ship, we see various shots of different parts of the ship. One of those shots is of an empty engineering deck, which makes no sense - that is where he is calling from.

Episode: "The Omega Glory"
Lieutenant Galloway, Security Officer
- Vaporized with a phaser by Captain Ronald Tracey

24.  The Ultimate Computer

March 8, 1968

"Please, Spock, do me a favor, and don't say it's fascinating."

- Doctor Leonard "Bones" McCoy

Kirk and a skeleton crew are ordered to test out an advanced artificially intelligent control system - the M-5 Multitronic system, which could potentially render them all redundant. Star fleet is very optimistic, but, Kirk fears - even in a testing situation - removing humans from the equation is a very dangerous position to be left in. A position of life or death.

Director: John Meredyth Lucas / Laurence N. Wolfe
Writer: D.C. Fontana

Guest starring: William Marshall, Sean Morgan, Barry Russo, James Doohan

The Daystrom Institute, mentioned prominently in Star Trek: The Next Generation (1987), Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (1993), and Star Trek: Voyager (1995), is named for Dr. Richard Daystrom, the guest character in this episode.

In addition to playing his regular role of Chief Engineer "Scotty" Scott, in this episode James Doohan also provides the voice of the computer M-5, as well as that of the briefly heard and unnamed starbase officer who gives Commodore Wesley and the other starship commanders permission to destroy the Enterprise.

In his 1999 essay "Welcome Aboard the Enterprise," science fiction author Robert J. Sawyer writes, "...the ship's computers, as seen in "The Ultimate Computer," were designed by a Nobel-prize-winning black cyberneticist, played with equal dignity by William Marshall (above left). During the era of Martin Luther King and the Watts Riots, it was a powerful, important statement to have the white captain of the Enterprise deferring to black people; as Marshall observed thirty years later, the single most significant thing about his guest-starring role was that he, an African-American, was referred to as "Sir" throughout the episode."

Robert Wesley was named for a pseudonym that Gene Roddenberry had used early in his career, and in fact, "Wesley" is Roddenberry's given middle name. The name shows up again of course as Wesley Crusher in Star Trek: The Next generation.

Spock observes to Dr. McCoy that it is unfortunate no computer can replace a starship surgeon. Of course a computer does in Star Trek Voyager with the introduction of the holographic Doctor.

Kirk gets the M-5 to commit suicide by asking what is the penalty for murder, to which it replies "Death." However, in Star Trek: The Menagerie: Part I, it's established that the death penalty has been abolished for all crimes with the exception of visiting Talos IV.

Episode: "The Ultimate Computer"
Crewman Harper, Engineer
- Vaporized by plasma flow activated by computer M-5 to restore its power supply

25.  Bread and Circuses

March 15, 1968

"Captain? Both amplitude and frequency modulation being used.
I think I can pick up something visual - some news broadcast using a system I... think they once called video."

- Uhura

The S.S. Beagle, missing for six years, is found as debris near Planet IV of System 982. Kirk, Spock, and McCoy beam down to the planet to investigate and find a ragged group of fugitive slaves trying to stay hidden from the police. These "sun worshippers" distrust the landing party but soon discover that they are not a threat. Kirk informs them that he is looking for another group of strangers led by a man named Merik. Merikus is the First Citizen of the Empire, but Kirk is not sure if it is the same man. Pursuaded to help them find Merik and his crew, the leader of the fugitives sends Flavius, an ex-gladiator, to be their guide. The landing party, however, is soon captured and led into the city where they discover a civilization much like 20th century Earth, but culturally similar to ancient Rome. The landing party find Merik, now First Citizen Merikus, who six years ago abandoned his ship and beamed his crew down to the planet.

Director: Ralph Senensky / John Kneubuhl
Writer: Gene Roddenberry / Gene L. Coon

Guest starring: Tom Steele, Gil Perkins, Paul Stader, Bob Orrison, William Smithers, Logan Ramsey, Ian Wolfe, William Bramley, Rhodes Reason, Bart La Rue, Jack Perkins, Max Kleven, Lois Jewell, Paul Baxley, Allen Pinson

The coat of arms on the clothes of the Proconsul Claudius Marcus is the coat of arms of William Shakespeare.

Gene Roddenberry and Gene L. Coon wrote this episode's teleplay from a story by playwright and television writer John Kneubuhl. However, Roddenberry and Coon received sole writing credit for the episode.

This episode marks the final appearance of Kirk's second season green wrap around tunic. Beginning in Star Trek: Assignment: Earth (1968), which followed, and when the series returned for its third and final season Kirk goes back to wearing his standard gold and black v-neck tunic full time.

The name of Merrick's merchant vessel, the S.S. Beagle, is a reference to the vessel famous for carrying Charles Darwin on the mission to chart South America, the H.M.S. Beagle, which would, coincidentally, turn into a five year mission, and the early basis for Darwin's "On the Origin of Species."

The final twist involves the similarity between the words son and sun in the neo-Roman culture. Ironically, this pun only works in Germanic languages such as English. It could never work in Latin (the real Roman Empire's primary language) nor its Romantic derivatives such as Italian, where the words for son (filius/figlio) and sun (sol/sole) do not sound the slightest bit alike.

During Kirk's log entry about being in a modern-day Rome, we are taken on a "tour" of the city's landmarks, including the main library at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (plainly readable on the facade) and the California Palace of the Legion of Honor, in San Francisco (as evidenced by the French - not Latin - inscription "Honneur et Patrie" on the building).

Whenever a machine gun is being fired, it is being held by the magazine. This would lead to the breach jamming.

During the jail scene with Spock and McCoy together in the cell, the joint on Spock's prosthetic pointed left ear can clearly be seen peeling.

26.  Assignment: Earth

March 29, 1968

"Captain's log. Using the light speed breakaway factor, the Enterprise has moved back through time to the 20th century. We are now in extended orbit around Earth, using our ship's deflector shields to remain unobserved. Our mission - historical research. We are monitoring Earth communications to find out how our planet survived desperate problems in the year... 1968."

- Captain James T. Kirk

The Enterprise is sent on a mission back to Earth in the year 1968 to discover details about how the planet survived the arms race. While in orbit, the ship intercepts a transporter beam from an unknown part of the galaxy and beams the space traveler aboard. Surprised by what has taken place, the man identifies himself as Gary Seven and claims to be a 20th Century Earthman raised on an unknown world and trained to prevent Earth from destroying itself. Kirk decides to verify Seven's story before releasing him, but Seven escapes and beams down to the planet below. Kirk and Spock follow him to New York City, and Seven meanwhile discovers that two of his fellow agents have been killed in a auto accident. Seven is forced to complete their mission himself which is to sabotage an orbital nuclear platform, just low enough in the atmosphere to scare Earth leaders into prohibiting additional nuclear space weapons.

Director: Gene Roddenberry / Marc Daniels
Writer: Art Wallace

Guest starring: Barbara Babcock, Majel Barrett, Robert Lansing, Teri Garr, Don Keefer, Lincoln Demyan, Morgan Jones, Bruce Mars, Ted Gehring, Paul Baxley, James Doohan

Spock mentions all the events which are to occur on that date the Entrerpise crossed the time line into the 20th century and met up with Gary Seven. Amongst the events mentioned, were an important political assassination. As it turned out, there were ultimately two important political assassinations in 1968;. Just six days after this episode aired on March 29th, 1968, Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. was shot and killed in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4th, 1968, and two months later, on June, 6th 1968, Senator Robert F. Kennedy was killed in Los Angeles, California on the night he won the California Democratic Presidential Primary.

The original draft script was not a Star Trek project. Gary Seven was an Earthman from the future who had been sent back in time to combat the Omegans, an evil alien people who'd mastered time travel. When ASSIGNMENT EARTH didn't sell as a separate television series, the concept was rewritten into the STAR TREK format.

Gary Seven's computer display is the same one used as Dr. Daystrom's M-5 computer in Star Trek: The Ultimate Computer (1968), as well as being used by Mr. Atoz, the librarian, in All Our Yesterdays.

Only episode of the original series where a guest star is listed in the opening sequence rather than in the end credits: "Starring Robert Lansing as Gary Seven" is displayed when Gary Seven is first shown in the transporter.

Captain Kirk's closing comment - "I'm sure they'll have many interesting adventures together" hoped to set up a spin-off series which never materialised. The series would have featured Robert Lansing as Gary Seven, Barbara Babcock as Isis, and Teri Garr as Roberta Lincoln. In the new series, the intrepid three would have worked to make sure humanity achieved the destiny glimpsed via the Star Trek (1966) characters and Seven's mysterious extraterrestrial information.

The script called for Isis, when in cat form, to make various cat sounds on cue (meows, purrs, growls, etc.) Since finding appropriate real cat sounds for the soundtrack proved problematic, the director discovered that Barbara Babcock, who was hired to do the voice of the Beta 5 computer, could vocalise convincing cat sounds, Barbara was called upon to vocalise Isis' cat sounds as well. Victoria Vetri, Playboy Playmate of 1968, portrayed Isis in human form and three black cats were used in the production.

Angela Dorian (above, AKA Victoria Vetri) had a brief cameo as Isis the Woman in this episode. Dorian appeared in many small roles in movies and on television in the 60s and 70s, including: Rosemary’s Baby, The Invasion of the Bee Girls, Hogan’s Heroes, Perry Mason, Bonanza, The Man from U.N.C.L.E. and The Courtship of Eddie’s Father. She was also Playboy Playmate of the Year 1968. In 2010, she was charged with the attempted murder of her husband. In 2011 she pleaded no contest to attempted voluntary manslaughter and got nine years in prison.

Teri Garr had such an unpleasant time filming this episode, that she refused to ever talk about Star Trek. Too bad, it's one of our favorite Trek episodes largely because of Teri Garr. In a 1991 Starlog Magazine interview she states, "I have nothing to say about it. I did that years ago and I mostly denied I ever did it."

When asked about director Marc Daniels she said, "He’s dead. I liked Gene Roddenberry, but I don’t remember those people. I really don’t want to talk about Star Trek."

Roberta Lincoln’s distinctive dress was a sore spot for actress. The dress’ hemline started out being more modest, but the powers-that-be kept that hem rising until it was almost a micro skirt instead of a mini.

In Garr's autobiography, her opjections to the show seem to soften.

And then I got my first big break as an actress. A friend in my acting class told me that they were casting a guest role on Star Trek.&ldots; This role was supposed to spin off into its own series – Assignment: Earth. It was going to be tough to get an audition – all the big agents were clamouring to get their clients seen, and my agent wasn’t in that league.&ldots;

Luckily my friend from acting class had an in and helped me get through the door. I never thought I would get the part because I was still really just a dancer.&ldots; I had no real credibility as an actress.&ldots; Then I read the script and saw that in the first scene my character was flustered because she was late. I thought: Well, I’m always late. I can do late. After I did the reading they asked me to come in for a screen test. I’d never had a screen test before! They cut my hair short and put me in front of a camera. They had me turn in a circle very slowly. Then they asked me easy questions.&ldots; I was overjoyed to be having a screen test. I didn’t dare hope I’d get any further, but the next thing I knew, they were calling me to appear on set. I was dizzy with joy – and that dizziness helped me get into character.

&ldots;Had the spin-off succeeded, I would have continued on as an earthling agent, working to preserve humanity.&ldots; But it was not to be.

- Speedbumps: Flooring It Through Hollywood by Teri Garr

In 2002, Garr publicly confirmed that she had been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. After years of uncertainty and secrecy surrounding her diagnosis, Garr explained her reasons for deciding to go public: "I'm telling my story for the first time so I can help people. I can help people know they aren't alone and tell them there are reasons to be optimistic because, today, treatment options are available."

In interviews, she has commented that she first started noticing symptoms while in New York filming Tootsie. After disclosing her condition, she became a National Ambassador for the National Multiple Sclerosis Society and National Chair for the Society's Women Against MS program (WAMS). In 2005, Garr was honored as the society's Ambassador of the Year. This honor had been given only four times since the society was founded.

The same extras in the background can be seen passing - respectively - Kirk and Spock, and Roberta on her way into work, on four separate occasions (once in the same but split scene), going back and forth. The part of the walkway, however, is roughly the same on all occasions.

When launch control announces that the rocket has reached 1,000 feet, it is shown already deviating from the vertical on a downrange trajectory. This does not happen until the rocket is much higher than that. Since the Saturn V is 365 feet tall, at an altitude of 1,000 feet, it is less than three times its height above the ground, and does not appear to be at a great height in relative terms. Furthermore, if the rocket had deviated that far from the vertical at only 1,000 feet, it probably would have crashed.

Once Spock and Kirk arrive on the Earth's surface they ask Scotty to triangulate their location. You can only triangulate with 3 positions, the USS Enterprise is only one.

On Star Trek The Next Generation, Riker joined the crew of the Enterprise during what mission?

Farside mission
Fairpoint mission
Farscape mission
Farpoint mission

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